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Brisbane (pronounced /'b??z.b?n/) is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Queensland, and is the third largest city in Australia, with a population of over 1.77 million. It is a city set close to the Pacific Ocean, and is situated beside the Brisbane River on plains between Moreton Bay and the Great Dividing Range in south-eastern Queensland.

Named in honour of Sir Thomas Brisbane, the city grew from a harsh penal colony established by New South Wales at Redcliffe in 1824. It was chosen as the capital of Queensland when it was proclaimed a separate colony in 1859. The city developed slowly until after World War II, when it played a central role in the Allied campaign as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur. Brisbane staged a successful Commonwealth Games in 1982 and World's Fair in 1988. In the new millennium, it is Australia's fastest growing city and the second fastest in the developed world.

The area now known as Brisbane was inhabited before European settlement by the Turrbul and Jagera people whose ancestors originally migrated to the region from across the Torres Strait. In 1823 an exploration party led by John Oxley explored Moreton Bay and sailed up the Brisbane River as far as Goodna, some 20 km upstream from what is now Brisbane central business district.

In 1824, the colonial administration of New South Wales established a penal settlement at what is now Redcliffe, on the shores of Moreton Bay. However, the Redcliffe settlement was abandoned after only one year and the colony was moved south to a peninsula on the Brisbane River (today the Brisbane CBD), which offered a more reliable water supply. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838.

Queensland was proclaimed a separate colony in June 1859 and Brisbane, which was named in honour of Sir Thomas Brisbane (who was, at that time, Governor of New South Wales), was chosen as its capital. However, Brisbane was not incorporated as a city until 1902. Over twenty small municipalities and shires were amalgamated, in 1925, to form the City of Greater Brisbane, now known simply as the City of Brisbane.

During World War II, Brisbane played a central role in the the Allied campaign when the AMP Building (now called MacArthur Central) was used as the South West Pacific headquarters for General Douglas MacArthur, the chief of the Allied Pacific forces.

Brisbane staged a successful Commonwealth Games in 1982 and World's Fair in 1988. These events in the 1980s were accompanied by a scale of public expenditure, construction and diplomacy not previously seen in the state of Queensland.

In the decades since, the metropolis has become one of Australia's fastest growing cities through migration from all continents and the Australian states and territories. In the new millennium, it is one of Australia's fastest growing and most multicultural centres.

Brisbane has a typical subtropical climate with hot, humid summers and dry, mild winters. From late Spring through to early Autumn, thunderstorms are common over the greater Brisbane area, with the more severe events accompanied by large damaging hailstones, torrential rain and destructive winds.

The city's highest recorded temperature was 43.2 °C (109.8 °F) on the 26 January 1940, while the lowest temperature of 2.3 °C (36.1 °F) was recorded on 12 July 1894 and 2 July 1896 [3]. Brisbane's wettest day was 21 January 1887, when 465 mm (18.3 in) of rain fell on the city, the highest maximum daily rainfall of any of Australia's capital cities.


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